Last updated on: 10/4/2023 | Author:


The background and pro and con arguments were written by staff based upon input from the following sources.

1.Kristina Rutherford, “Olympics: Winning Isn’t Everything,”, Nov. 22, 2012
2.Sally Jenkins, “Winning, Cheating Have Ancient Roots,”, Aug. 3, 2007
3.Nick Busca, “Should Athletes Be Allowed to Enhance Their Genes?,”, Apr. 29, 2019
4.Sam Moxon, “Gene Doping: The Next ‘Big Issue’ in World Athletics,”, Mar. 23, 2021
5.Michael LePage, “Anti-Doping Agency to Ban All Gene Editing in Sport from 2018,”, Oct. 9, 2017
6.Alex Pearlman, “The Case for More Doping in the Olympics,”, Mar. 11, 2021
7.Matt Glover, “The Case for PEDs, and a More Fair Sporting World,”, Feb. 10, 2022
8.Torbjörn Tännsjö, “Let Athletes Dope: A Moral Case,”, Sep. 10, 2015
9.Garrett S. Bullock, et al., “Temporal Trends in Incidence of Time-Loss Injuries in Four Male Professional North American Sports over 13 Seasons,” Scientific Reports,, Apr. 15, 2021
10.Erik Thorell, “Are Women Athletes More Susceptible to Injury?,”, May 19, 2015
11.Alexander E. Weber, et al., “Anabolic Androgenic Steroids in Orthopaedic Surgery: Current Concepts and Clinical Applications,” Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Global Research and Reviews,, Jan. 6, 2022
12.J. M. Beiner, et al., “The Effect of Anabolic Steroids and Corticosteroids on Healing of Muscle Contusion Injury,” American Journal of Sports Medicine,, Jan.-Feb. 1999
13.Kylie Urban, “Some Olympic Doping Drugs May Have Legitimate Medical Uses,”, Aug. 2, 2016
14.Phillip Huynh, “Speeding Up the Injury Recovery Process,”, Oct. 4, 2023
15.John William Devine, “The Enhanced Games: Letting Athletes Use Drugs Could Lead to Worse Problems than Cheating,”, July 11, 2023
16.Maeve Juday, “To Dope, or Not to Dope?,”, Feb. 15, 2018
17.Julian Savulescu, Bennett Foddy, and M. Clayton, “Why We Should Allow Performance Enhancing Drugs in Sport,” British Journal of Sports Medicine,, Nov. 23, 2004
18.Fabian Filipp, “Is Science Killing Sport? Gene Therapy and Its Possible Abuse in Doping,”, EMBO Reports, May 2007
19.World Anti-Doping Agency, “WADA Ethics Panel: Guiding Values in Sport and Anti-Doping,”, Oct. 2017
20.Christopher Matthews, “Doping Cheats Athletes of Glory — and Big Paydays,”, Sep. 20, 2017
21.Bonnie Berkowitz and William Neff, “What Bodybuilders Do to Their Bodies — and Brains,”, Dec. 8, 2022
22.Derek Hall, “Arnold Schwarzenegger Says Open Bodybuilding Is ‘Dangerous,’ Classic Physique Is the Future,”, Sep. 28, 2021
23.Kara Rogers, “Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy,”, Sep. 29, 2023
24.Will Carroll, “Little-Known PED, Blamed in Player's Death, Is Major Threat to Anti-Doping Fight,”, May 7, 2013
25.Adam R. Nicholls, et al., “Children’s First Experience of Taking Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids Can Occur before Their 10th Birthday: A Systematic Review Identifying 9 Factors That Predicted Doping among Young People,” Frontiers in Psychology,, June 20, 2017
26.Sport Integrity Australia, “The Worrying Trend of Steroid Use in Young Adults,”, May 26 2023
27.Teddy Bridgewater,, July 18, 2022