Last updated on: 4/7/2021 | Author: ProCon.org

Doping Cases at the Olympics

Drug testing at the Olympics began in 1968. As of the 2018 Winter Games in PyeongChang, South Korea, there have been 433 positive doping tests, resulting in the loss of 169 medals (57 gold, 62 silver, and 50 bronze) over 27 Games in 50 years.

Russian athletes have most often tested positive, with 132 positive doping results, and have had the most medals stripped from athletes at 63 total (17 gold, 34 silver, and 12 bronze).

The most positive tests are found in athletics (track and field), with 166 positive tests and 57 lost medals (22 gold, 21 silver, and 14 bronze).

Turinabol, an androgenic anabolic steroid, is the drug most associated with positive doping tests, showing up in 65 tests by itself, and in nine drug cocktails for another 35 positive tests. All-in-all positive results showing turinabol resulted in the loss of 54 medals (8 gold, 24 silver, and 22 bronze).

Below, explore positive doping results by Games, country, sport, and drug(s) or drug offense.

Olympics Doping Cases by Games

 YearGamesCity & CountryPositive Doping ResultsMedals Stripped

TOTALS

50 years

27 games

27 cities &
18 countries

433

169 total
57 gold
62 silver
50 bronze

2018WinterPyeongChang, South Korea41 bronze
2016SummerRio de Janeiro, Brazil161 silver
3 bronze
2014WinterSochi, Russia558 gold
12 silver
1 bronze
2012SummerLondon, England13213 gold
17 silver*
11 bronze
2010WinterVancouver, Canada6
2008SummerBeijing, China919 gold
20 silver
19 bronze
2006WinterTurin, Italy81 silver
2004SummerAthens, Greece378 gold
2 silver
5 bronze
2002WinterSalt Lake City, United States105 gold
3 silver
1 bronze
2000SummerSydney, Australia158 gold
1 silver
5 bronze
1998WinterNagano, Japan0
1996SummerAtlanta, United States7
1994WinterLillehammer, Norway0
1992SummerBarcelona, Spain5
1992WinterAlbertville, France0
1988SummerSeoul, South Korea103 gold
1 silver
1988WinterCalgary, Canada1
1984SummerLos Angeles, United States122 silver
1984WinterSarajevo, Bosnia1
1980SummerMoscow, Russia0
1980WinterLake Placid, United States0
1976SummerMontreal, Canada112 gold
1 silver
1976WinterInnsbruck, Austria31 bronze
1972SummerMunich, Germany71 gold
1 silver
2 bronze
1972WinterSapporo, Japan1
1968SummerMexico City, Mexico11 bronze
1968WinterGrenoble, France0

*including 1 retained due to athlete’s death following year

Olympics Doping Cases by Country

CountryPositive Doping ResultsMedals Stripped
Afghanistan1
Albania2
Algeria1
Armenia63 bronze
Australia2
Austria13
Azerbaijan71 silver
1 bronze
Bahrain11 gold
Belarus272 gold
2 silver
6 bronze
Brazil5
Bulgaria104 gold
2 silver
1 bronze
Canada11 gold
China63 gold
Colombia2
Croatia1
Cuba21 silver
Cyprus1
Czechoslovakia3
Finland11 silver
France1
Georgia21 silver
Germany12 gold
England21 bronze
Greece112 bronze
Hungary72 gold
2 silver
Iceland1
India3
Iran
Ireland31 gold
Italy61 silver
Jamaica11 gold
Japan3
Kazakhstan135 gold
2 silver
2 bronze
Kenya1
Kyrgyzstan21 bronze
Latvia1
Lebanon1
Lithuania21 silver
Moldova13 bronze
Monaco1
Mongolia11 silver
Morocco3
Myanmar1
Netherlands11 bronze
North Korea1
Norway31 bronze
Olympic Athletes from Russia21 bronze
Poland81 gold
Puerto Rico2
Qatar2
Romania71 gold
1 silver
2 bronze
Russia13217 gold
34 silver*
12 bronze
Saint Kitts and Nevis1
Saudi Arabia2
Slovenia3
Soviet Union11 bronze
Spain83 gold
1 bronze
Sweden51 silver
1 bronze
Syria1
Tajikistan1
Trinidad and Tobago1
Turkey191 gold
4 silver
Ukraine262 gold
4 silver
5 bronze
Unified Team1
United States188 gold
1 silver
3 bronze
Uzbekistan12 gold
1 silver
1 bronze
Vietnam1
West Germany1

*including 1 retained due to athlete’s death following year

Olympics Doping Cases by Sport

SportPositive Doping ResultsMedals Stripped
Alpine Skiing11 bronze
Athletics (Track & Field)16622 gold
21 silver
14 bronze
Baseball2
Basketball1
Biathlon155 silver
Bobsleigh56 gold
Boxing11 silver
Canoeing11 silver
1 bronze
Cross-Country Skiing106 gold
7 silver
1 bronze
Cycling121 gold
1 silver
3 bronze
Equestrian12 gold
1 bronze
Gymnastics11 gold
Ice Hockey17
Judo11 silver
Luge23 silver
Curling11 bronze
Modern Pentathlon42 bronze
Rowing41 bronze
Sailing1
Shooting21 silver
1 bronze
Skeleton11 gold
1 bronze
Speed Skating51 silver
Swimming41 gold
Volleyball3
Weightlifting10614 gold
14 silver
21 bronze
Wrestling183 gold
8 silver*
2 bronze

*including 1 retained due to athlete’s death following year

Olympics Doping Cases by Drug(s) or Drug Offense

Drug(s) or Drug OffensePositive Doping ResultsMedals Stripped
"Blast Off Red"1
Acetazolamide31 silver
Administration of prohibited substances1
Amphetamine3
Anabolic agents and hormones1 gold
Anabolic androgenic steroids1 silver
Anabolic steroid142 gold
1 silver
Antipsychotics (to horse Waterford Crystal)1 gold
BALCO investigation3
Betamethasone (to horse Goldfever)1 gold
Biological passport abnormalities343 gold
2 silver
blood tranfusions2
Caffeine1
Cannabis1
Capsaicin41 bronze
Carphedon11 silver
Cathine1
CERA11 gold
1 silver
Clenbuterol61 bronze
Clenbuterol, Methandienone and Oxandrolone21 bronze
Codeine, Morphine1
Coramine22 bronze
Darbepoetin35 gold
3 silver
Dehydrochloromethyltestosterone1
Dianabol11 silver
Disappearing Sample438 gold
12 silver
1 bronze
Diuretic1
Drostanolone1
Drostanolone & Stanozolol1
Ephedrine51 gold
1 bronze
Ephedrine and pseudoephedrine1
EPO11
EPO and HGH11 gold
Erythropoietin7
Ethamivan11 bronze
Ethanol11 bronze
Evasion of doping control11 gold
Exogenous testosterone2
Felbinac1
Fencamfamine1
Fenfluramine1
Fenoterol1
Furosemide133 gold
1 silver
1 bronze
GHRP-211 bronze
GHRP-2 , Metabolite & Sibutramine11 gold
GHRP-2 & Metabolite32 gold
Hydrochlorothiazide1
Meldonium11 bronze
Mesocarb1
Metadienone1
Metandienone & Stanozolol11 silver
Metenolone & Stanozolol21 silver
Methamphetamine11 bronze
Methandienone51 silver
1 bronze
Methenolone31 gold
2 silver
Methylhexanamine81 gold
1 bronze
Methyltestosterone11 silver
Methyltrienolone1
n/a191 gold
3 silver
2 bronze
Nandrolone172 gold
Nonivamide1
Norandrosterone and noretiochdandone1
Norephedrine1
Oxandrolone61 gold
2 silver
1 bronze
Pemoline1
Phenylpropanolamine1
Possession and use or attempted use of a prohibited substance or method1
Possession of a prohibited substance or method5
Possession of blood-transfusion equipment2
Propanolol21 silver
1 bronze
Pseudoephedrine21 gold
Refused to submit sample21 gold
Stanozolol295 gold
3 silver
3 bronze
Stanozolol & Oxandrolone11 gold
Stanozolol, Oxandrolone & Turinabol1
Stimulant1
Strychnine21 bronze
Tampering with doping control1
Testosterone101 bronze
THG13 gold
2 bronze
trimetazidine3
Tuaminoheptane11 silver
Turinabol654 gold
16 silver*
14 bronze
Turinabol & Drostanolone11 silver
Turinabol & EPO11 bronze
Turinabol & Ipamorelin11 silver
Turinabol & Metabolite of 1-Testosterone, 1-Androstenedione or 1-Androstenediol11 silver
Turinabol & Oxandrolone11 gold
Turinabol & Stanozolol233 gold
4 silver
5 bronze
Turinabol & Tamoxifen11 silver
1 bronze
Turinabol, Metenolone & Stanozolol51 bronze
Use of prohibited substances and methods (self admission)11 gold
Use, Possession, Trafficking, Administration of Prohibited Substances and Methods and Assisting, Encouraging, Aiding, Abetting, Covering Up11 bronze

*including 1 retained due to athlete’s death following year

Source: Wikipedia, “Doping at the Olympic Games,” wikipedia.org (accessed Apr. 6, 2021)