Drugs can be added and removed from this list by WADA annually, although not all of the banned substances are explicitly named. Caroline Hatton, PhD, a sports anti-doping science consultant, told ProCon.org in a Mar. 12, 2010 email that "A key concept in prohibited lists is that they avoid being finite. Instead of listing all banned drugs one by one, they list entire drug classes and name drugs merely as examples. This is to keep users who took designer drugs from claiming that they didn't break the rules because the drugs they took weren't listed."
Each sports organization that adopts the "Code" is also responsible for enforcing it through drug testing and non-compliance penalties. Several sports leagues, including the National Football League (NFL), Major League Baseball (MLB), and the National Basketball Association (NBA), have not adopted WADA's "Code."
enhancement of oxygen transfer (i.e. blood doping and artificially enhancing the uptake, transport or delivery of oxygen)
Enhances athletic performance in the following ways:
endurance performance improvement
ability to perform better at higher altitudes
allergic reactions if wrong blood type is used
cardiac output decrease
contraction of infectious diseases such as viral hepatitis, malaria, cytomegalovirus, or HIV
immune system overload
platelet count reduction
chemical and physical manipulation
Chemical and physical manipulation of samples can include tampering with samples, substitution and/or alteration of urine, catheterisation, and intravenous infusion. Such manipulation can allow athletes to benefit from the use of performance enhancing drugs without testing positive for prohibited substances.
Intravenous infusion is also prohibited unless there is an acute medical situation (i.e. acute blood loss) in which the use of this method is necessary.
Substances and methods that are prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency's (WADA) "2008 Prohibited List International Standard" (147 KB) are not limited to those specifically enumerated above. Please refer to WADA's Prohibited List (147 KB) for banned related metabolites and isomers of substances, exceptions, classification of drugs and methods as prohibited in and/or out of competition or for specific sports, and the systematic International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) names of the substances.
The pros and cons of the health effects provided in our chart were compiled from the following sources unless otherwise noted: