Last updated on: 10/22/2008 3:43:00 PM PST
What Are Performance Enhancing Drugs?
General Reference (not clearly pro or con)
MSN Encarta Online Encyclopedia wrote an article titled "Performance-Enhancing Drugs," posted on its website (accessed Oct. 20, 2008), which stated:
"Performance-Enhancing Drugs [are] various substances, chemical agents, or procedures designed to provide an advantage in athletic performance. Performance-enhancing drugs affect the body in different ways, such as enlarging muscles or increasing the blood's oxygen-carrying capacity. Despite these apparent benefits, the use of such drugs is considered both competitively unethical and medically dangerous. Most performance-enhancing drugs are outlawed by organizations that govern major amateur and professional sports."
Oct. 20, 2008 - MSN Encarta Online Encyclopedia
Steve Olivier, Professor of Sport and Exercise Science at the University of Abertay Dundee, wrote in his article titled "Drugs in Sports: Justifying Paternalism on the Grounds of Harm," published in the Nov./Dec. 1996 issue of the American Journal of Sports Medicine:
"What exactly are we referring to when we talk about performance enhancing substances? Very generally, we can initially group them as follows:
Nov./Dec. 1996 - Steve Olivier
The American Academy of Pediatrics wrote in its policy statement titled "Use of Performance-Enhancing Substances," published Apr. 4, 2005 in the journal Pediatrics:
"A performance-enhancing substance is any substance taken in nonpharmacologic doses specifically for the purposes of improving sports performance. A substance should be considered performance enhancing if it benefits sports performance by increasing strength, power, speed, or endurance (ergogenic) or by altering body weight or body composition. Furthermore, substances that improve performance by causing changes in behavior, arousal level, and/or perception of pain should be considered performance enhancing.
Performance-enhancing substances include the following:
Apr. 4, 2005 - American Academy of Pediatrics