John William Devine, Senior Lecturer in Ethics, Department of Sport and Exercise Sciences at Swansea University, states:

“In evaluating any sports performance, the outcome cannot be detached from the means of its achievement. More work needs to be done by philosophers and sport scientists to determine when, if ever, drug-assisted performance truly extends the limits of human performance….

Furthermore, sports are designed to test a specific cluster of skills and capacities, including physical, psychological, tactical and technical abilities. Performance-enhancing drugs elevate the importance of certain physical attributes, such as strength and stamina.

Lifting the ban on drugs would alter the nature of sports by increasing the significance of this sub-set of physical attributes at the expense of other physical attributes, such as coordination and agility, as well as non-physical attributes such as strategic skill, mental resilience, and technical proficiency.”


John William Devine, “The Enhanced Games: Letting Athletes Use Drugs Could Lead to Worse Problems than Cheating,”, July 11, 2023