Cyclist, in an undated article, accessed on Apr. 22, 2021, "Should Doping Be Criminalised?," available at, stated"

“Doping is already a criminal offence in [Austria], France and Italy, but is purely an infringement of sporting rules in the UK and the rest of the world – resulting in a competition ban but no criminal fines or risks of prison time…

The issue begs the question of whether sport be fairer and better if there were steps unilaterally to make doping a crime? Should the world follow suit?

…Interestingly, in Germany and Austria, where doping is criminalised, the model of prosecution is one of fraud, punishing an athlete who benefits financially from doping…

Doping is also illegal in France and Italy. In France it carries up to a €3,750 penalty and a year in prison, but relies on possession or movement of drugs rather than a positive test.

To traffick performance enhancing drugs in Italy or France carries with it substantial penalties, and in past years that’s seen numerous team support staff prosecuted for involvement in doping.

The question remains, though, should doping be a criminal offence for an athlete?”

Apr. 22, 2021