The Mayo Clinic, in a Dec. 4, 2020 article, "Performance-Enhancing Drugs: Know the Risks," available at, stated:

“Erythropoietin [EPO] is a type of hormone used to treat anemia in people with severe kidney disease. It increases production of red blood cells and hemoglobin — the protein that carries oxygen to your body’s organs.

Taking erythropoietin improves the movement of oxygen to the muscles. Epoetin, a synthetic form of erythropoietin, is commonly used by endurance athletes…

Erythropoietin use among competitive cyclists was common in the 1990s and allegedly contributed to at least 18 deaths. Inappropriate use of erythropoietin may increase the risk of stroke, heart attack and blockage in an artery in the lung (pulmonary embolism).”

Dec. 4, 2020