The first half of a specimen that is tested for drugs. If the test indicates drug use, then the B sample is also tested.
Adverse Analytical Finding
Drug test result that indicates either evidence of a banned substance, or evidence of the use of a prohibited method.
Synthetic versions of testosterone, the primary male sex hormone. Chemically manufactured and taken orally or by injection to build muscle, increase speed, or recover from injury more quickly.
The common name for the substance Androstenedione. Classified as an anabolic steroid, the body turns Andro into testosterone. It was made famous by professional baseball player Mark McGwire who hit 70 home runs in 1998, breaking the single-season home record, and who was then discovered to have been taking Andro. The drug was not banned by Major League Baseball until 2004.
The second half of a specimen that is tested for drugs. Only used to confirm the positive result if the A sample tests positive for banned substances.
Bay Area Laboratory Co-Operative; founded in 1984 by Victor Conte. Distributed performance enhancing drugs that avoided detection by drug testing. Came under investigation in 2003 when the US government learned that professional athletes had been using banned substances provided by BALCO.
Also called prohibited substances; drugs that athletes may not use because they are performance enhancing, have a health risk, violate the spirit of sport, or may be a masking agent.
A class of drugs used to lower blood pressure and decrease the heart rate. In sports, they can help to calm anxiety.
The practice of increasing the number of red blood cells by blood transfusion or by taking the drug erythropoietin (EPO). The increased red blood cell count allows more oxygen to reach the muscles, thereby improving performance.
The act of compelling something to happen by threat or pressure; forcing someone to do something against his or her will
Steroids specifically created to enhance performance and evade detection by existing testing methods.
The use of a prohibited substance or method in an attempt to gain an advantage in athletic competition
The process of sample collection and handling, laboratory analysis and testing, results management, and hearing and appeals that is enacted to enforce an anti-doping program.
Having performance-enhancing qualities
A hormone produced by the kidney that stimulates red blood cell count, and which may improve the ability of the body to transport oxygen to the muscles. Increased levels of oxygen in the blood may enhance athletic performance.
Changing DNA through genetic manipulation by injecting genes into muscle or bone cells.
Chemical substances produced in the body that circulate through the bloodstream to tissues or organs. They affect processes such as growth and development, reproduction, digestion, and mood.
Human Growth Hormone (HGH)
A hormone produced by the pituitary gland that is important for growth and development. HGH is used as a performance enhancing drug because it promotes muscle growth and increases energy.
Slang term referring to steroids used as performance enhancing drugs.
A type of drug that is prohibited not because it is performance enhancing, but because taking it may help to hide the present of performance enhancing drugs. Masking Agents are used to avoid detection of other banned substances.
Officially titled "Report to the Commissioner of Baseball of an Independent Investigation into the Illegal Use of Steroids and Other Performance Enhancing Substances By Players in Major League Baseball," presented by former US Senator George J. Mitchell on Dec. 12, 2007 to Major League Baseball Commissioner Bud Selig. The report alleged a widespread use of illegal anabolic steroids by professional baseball players for more than a decade, and it named 89 players as doping offenders.
The idea the intervention against someone's will is justified because it will protect that person from harm.
Common abbreviation for performance enhancing drugs; refers to substances taken to improve athletic performance.
Substances that increase alertness and energy, and elevate blood pressure, heart rate, and respiration. Common examples include caffeine, amphetamines, cocaine, and ephedrine.
The principle that an athlete is strictly liable, or fully responsible, for any substance found in his or her body. As enforced by anti-doping agencies, the strict liability rule means that an athlete will be sanctioned for an adverse analytical finding whether or not the athlete intentionally used a banned substance, even if it can be proven to have entered his or her body without the athlete's knowledge.
The primary male sex hormone that promotes the development of male characteristics. Present in females as well. Also influences muscle development, metabolism, and reproduction.
Testosterone/epitestosterone ratio; a measure of the level of testosterone compared to the level of epitestosterone present in an athlete's urine. A ratio higher that 4:1 may indicate doping and trigger follow up tests.
Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE)
Athletes that have medical needs which require them to use medications prohibited by the WADA Code may request a TUE granting an exception to use those medications.
A designer steroid whose full name is tetrahydrogestrinone; also known as "the clear." It was developed by BALCO and remained undetected until a sample was anonymously mailed to an anti-doping laboratory in 2003. Now prohibited by the WADA Code.
The World Anti-Doping Code, also known as the "WADA Code" or simply "The Code," is the main document upon which the WADA anti-doping program is based. Its purpose is to coordinate detection, deterrence, and prevention of doping at the international and national level of sports.